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Der Nachfolgende engl. Abschnitt über Würzburg stammt aus der Encyclopædia Britannica von 1911

The original text in the Encyclopædia Britannica (1911)

Be aware, the links here are connected to the German WuerzburgWiki of today:

[[1]], a university town and [Würzburg|episcopal see] of [[2]], Germany, capital of the [of Lower Franconia], situated on the [[3]], 60 m. by rail S.E. from Frankfort and at the junction of main lines to [[4]] and Nuremberg.

[[5]] (1905): 80,220.

An ancient [Mainbrücke|stone bridge] (1474-[[6]]), 650 ft. long and adorned with statues of saints, and two modern bridges, the [[7]] ([[8]]) and the [[9]] ([[10]]), connect the two parts of the town on each side of the river. On the lofty [[11]] stands the [Marienberg|fortress of Marienberg], which from [[12]] to [[13]] was the residence of the [[14]]. The main part of the town, on the right bank, is surrounded by shady promenades, the Ringstrasse and the quay. Würzburg is quaintly and irregularly built; many of the houses are interesting specimens of [[15]] architecture; and the numerous old [[16]] recall the fact that it was long the capital of an ecclesiastical principality. The principal church is the imposing Romanesque [[17]], a basilica with transepts, begun in [[18]] and consecrated in [[19]]. The four towers, however, date from [[20]], the (rococo) façade from 1711-[[21]], and the dome from [[22]]. The spacious transepts terminate in apses. The exterior was restored in 1882-[[23]].

The beautiful [[24]], a Gothic edifice of 1377-[[25]], was restored in [[26]]; it is embellished with twenty statues by [Riemenschneider|Tilman Riemenschneider] (d. [[27]]). The [Johannes_im_Stift_Haug|Haugerstifts church], with two towers and a lofty dome, was built in the Italian Renaissance style in 1670-[[28]].

The bones of [Kilian], the patron saint of Würzburg, are preserved in the [[29]] church, which dates from the 11th century; [von_der_Vogelweide|Walther von der Vogelweide] is buried in the adjoining cloisters.

The church of [Burkard.2C_Mainviertel)|St Burkhard] is externally one of the best-preserved architectural monuments in the city. It was built in 1033-[[30]], in the Romanesque style, and was restored in 1168. The Late Gothic choir dates from 1494-[[31]].

The [[32]], or university church, curiously unites a Gothic exterior with a Classical interior. The Protestant church of [im_Dekanat_Würzburg_Stadt#St._Stephan.2C_Stadtmitte|St Stephen] (1782-[[33]]) originally belonged to a Benedictine abbey.

Of the secular buildings in Würzburg the most conspicuous is [palace,] a huge and magnificent edifice built in 1720-[[34]] in imitation of Versailles, and formerly the [Erster_Bauabschnitt_und_Ruhezeit|residence] of the bishops and grand-dukes of Würzburg.

The [hospital], a large and richly endowed institution affording food and lodging to 600 persons daily, was founded in [[35]] by Bishop [Echter_von_Mespelbrunn|Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn] (1545-1619). In 1906 it was arranged to convert this into a residential college for students, the hospital being removed to a site outside the town.

The quaint [hall] dates in part from 1456. Among the other chief buildings are the government offices, the law courts, the theatre, the Maxschule, the observatory and the various university buildings.

A [[36]] was founded at Würzburg in [[37]], but it only existed for a few years. The present university was founded by [Echter_von_Mespelbrunn|Bishop Julius] in 1582. The medical faculty speedily became famous, and has remained the most important faculty in Würzburg ever since. Here [Conrad_Röntgen|W. K. Röntgen] discovered the “Röntgenrays” in [[38]].

Würzburg was long the stronghold of [[39]] in Germany, and the Roman Catholic theological faculty still attracts a large number of students. The university has a library containing 300,000 volumes, and is attended by about 1400 students. In no other university city of Germany has so much of the medieval academic life been preserved.

Würzburg is surrounded by [in_Würzburg_und_Umgebung|vineyards], which yield some of the best wine in Germany. Its principal industries are the manufacture of tobacco, furniture, machinery, scientific instruments and railway carriages. It has also breweries, and produces bricks, vinegar, malt and chocolate.


The site of the Leistenberg was occupied by a Roman fort, and was probably fortified early in the 13th century.

Wircebirgum is the old Latin form of the name of the town;

Herbipolis (herb town) first appears in the 12th century. The bishopric was probably founded in [[40]], but the town appears to have existed in the previous century. The first bishop was [Burkhard], and his successors soon acquired much temporal power; about the 12th century they had ducal authority in Eastern Franconia. It is not surprising that quarrels broke out between the bishops and the citizens, and the latter espoused the cause of the emperor Henry IV., while the former joined the emperor's foes. The struggle continued intermittently until 1400, when the citizens were [defeated] and submitted. Several [zu_Würzburg|imperial diets] were held in Würzburg, chief among these being the one of [[41]] when Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony, was placed under the ban.

By the [of Lunéville] the bishopric was secularized, and in [[42]] Würzburg passed to Bavaria. The peace of Pressburg in [[43]] transferred it, under the name of an [[44]], to [III.|Ferdinand], formerly grand-duke of Tuscany, who joined the confederation of the Rhine and took the title of grand-duke of Würzburg. In [[45]] the congress of Vienna restored Würzburg to [Bayern|Bavaria].

The Würzburg Conference is the name given to the meeting of representatives of the smaller German states in [[46]] to devise some means of mutual support. The conference, however, had no result. Würzburg was bombarded and taken by the Prussians in [[47]], in which year it ceased to be a fortress. The bishopric of Würzburg at one time embraced an area of about 1900 sq. m. and had about 250,000 inhabitants. A new bishopric of Würzburg was created in [[48]].

See references (1911) Bearbeiten

References: for the town see

  • S. Göbl, Würzburg, Ein kulturhistorisches Städtebild (Würzburg, 1896);
  • J. Gramich, Verfassung und Verwaltung der Stadt Würzburg (Würzburg, 1882);
  • M. Cronthal, Die Stadt Würzburg im Bauernkriege (Würzburg, 1887)
  • Heffner, Würzburg und seine Umgebungen (Würzburg, 1871)
  • Beckmann, Führer durch Würzburg (1906)
  • Holländer and Hessler, Malerisches aus Alt-Würzburg (Würzburg, 1898).


For the university see

  • F. X. von Wegele, Geschichte der Universität Würzburg (Würzburg, 1882).


For the bishopric see

  • J. Hofmann, Die Heiligen und Seligen des Bistums Würzburg (Würzburg, 1889);
  • F. J. B. Stamminger and A. Amrhein, Franconia sacra. Geschichte des Bistums Würzburg (Würzburg,

1889-1901)

  • T. Henner, Die herzogliche Gewalt der Bischöfe von 'Würzburg (Würzburg, 1874)

......

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